Attempt this test: Choose someone who knows next to nothing about your subject, give her or him a draft of your paper, and get the reader to construct an organogram (also known as an organizational chart) from all the headings you have used. If he or she can construct such a chart with each heading […]

?? (shodo) literally means «the way of writing.» It refers to a form of calligraphy (‘beautiful writing’) that is used for writing Japanese characters with a brush and ink on rice paper. ?? (shodo) originated in China. The very first calligraphy in Japan was written only using ?? (kanji) – Chinese Characters. However, after Hiragana […]


On May 13, the U.S. government announced the launch of the National Microbiome Initiative to investigate and map the microorganisms that live in the atmosphere, in or on the human figure, and any other ecosystems.   Very little is known about microbiomes, and researchers all over the world are keen on developing a deeper understanding […]

This book is licensed under a Creative Commons by-nc-sa Three.0 license. See the license for more details, but that basically means you can share this book as long as you credit the author (but see below), don’t make money from it, and do make it available to everyone else under the same terms. This content […]

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Case: The authors of a research paper were faced with an unusual problem. One of the members in his research group who was also a co-author of a paper the group was working on passed away. The manuscript was in the initial stages of writing and the other authors could not determine whether they should […]