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11.1 The Purpose of Research Writing

Learning Objectives

  1. Identify reasons to research writing projects.
  2. Outline the steps of the research writing process.

Why was the Fine Wall of China built? What have scientists learned about the possibility of life on Mars? What roles did women play in the American Revolution? How does the human brain create, store, and retrieve memories? Who invented the game of football, and how has it switched over the years?

You may know the answers to these questions off the top of your head. If you are like most people, however, you find answers to rough questions like these by searching the Internet, visiting the library, or asking others for information. To put it simply, you perform research.

Whether you are a scientist, an artist, a paralegal, or a parent, you very likely perform research in your everyday life. When your boss, your instructor, or a family member asks you a question that you do not know the reaction to, you locate relevant information, analyze your findings, and share your results. Locating, analyzing, and sharing information are key steps in the research process, and in this chapter, you will learn more about each step. By developing your research writing abilities, you will prepare yourself to reaction any question no matter how challenging.

Reasons for Research

When you perform research, you are essentially attempting to solve a mystery—you want to know how something works or why something happened. In other words, you want to response a question that you (and other people) have about the world. This is one of the most basic reasons for performing research.

But the research process does not end when you have solved your mystery. Imagine what would happen if a detective collected enough evidence to solve a criminal case, but she never collective her solution with the authorities. Presenting what you have learned from research can be just as significant as performing the research. Research results can be introduced in a multitude of ways, but one of the most popular—and effective—presentation forms is the research paper A composition that presents an original thesis about a topic and develops that thesis with information gathered from a diversity of sources. A research paper presents an original thesis, or purpose statement, about a topic and develops that thesis with information gathered from a multiplicity of sources.

If you are nosey about the possibility of life on Mars, for example, you might choose to research the topic. What will you do, tho’, when your research is accomplish? You will need a way to put your thoughts together in a logical, coherent manner. You may want to use the facts you have learned to create a narrative or to support an argument. And you may want to showcase the results of your research to your friends, your teachers, or even the editors of magazines and journals. Writing a research paper is an ideal way to organize thoughts, craft narratives or make arguments based on research, and share your newfound skill with the world.

Exercise 1

Write a paragraph about a time when you used research in your everyday life. Did you look for the cheapest way to travel from Houston to Denver? Did you search for a way to liquidate gum from the bottom of your shoe? In your paragraph, explain what you desired to research, how you performed the research, and what you learned as a result.

Research Writing and the Academic Paper

No matter what field of explore you are interested in, you will most likely be asked to write a research paper during your academic career. For example, a student in an art history course might write a research paper about an artist’s work. Similarly, a student in a psychology course might write a research paper about current findings in childhood development.

Having to write a research paper may feel intimidating at very first. After all, researching and writing a long paper requires a lot of time, effort, and organization. However, writing a research paper can also be a superb chance to explore a topic that is particularly interesting to you. The research process permits you to build up expertise on a topic of your choice, and the writing process helps you recall what you have learned and understand it on a deeper level.

Research Writing at Work

Knowing how to write a good research paper is a valuable skill that will serve you well across your career. Whether you are developing a fresh product, studying the best way to perform a procedure, or learning about challenges and opportunities in your field of employment, you will use research technologies to guide your exploration. You may even need to create a written report of your findings. And because effective communication is essential to any company, employers seek to hire people who can write clearly and professionally.

Writing at Work

Take a few minutes to think about each of the following careers. How might each of these professionals use researching and research writing abilities on the job?

  • Medical laboratory technician
  • Puny business proprietor
  • Information technology professional
  • Freelance magazine writer

A medical laboratory technician or information technology professional might do research to learn about the latest technological developments in either of these fields. A petite business possessor might conduct research to learn about the latest trends in his or her industry. A freelance magazine writer may need to research a given topic to write an informed, up-to-date article.

Exercise Two

Think about the job of your fantasies. How might you use research writing abilities to perform that job? Create a list of ways in which strong researching, organizing, writing, and critical thinking abilities could help you succeed at your wish job. How might these abilities help you obtain that job?

Steps of the Research Writing Process

How does a research paper grow from a folder of brainstormed notes to a polished final draft? No two projects are identical, but most projects go after a series of six basic steps.

These are the steps in the research writing process:

  • Choose a topic.
  • Plan and schedule time to research and write.
  • Conduct research.
  • Organize research and ideas.
  • Draft your paper.
  • Revise and edit your paper.
  • Each of these steps will be discussed in more detail later in this chapter. For now, tho’, we will take a brief look at what each step involves.

    Step 1: Choosing a Topic

    As you may recall from Chapter 8 “The Writing Process: How Do I Begin?”. to narrow the concentrate of your topic, you may attempt freewriting exercises, such as brainstorming. You may also need to ask a specific research question A broad, open-ended question that a writer uses to guide the research process. In the research paper, the writer attempts to response the question thoughtfully. —a broad, open-ended question that will guide your research—as well as propose a possible reaction, or a working thesis The very first thesis statement a writer uses while outlining an assignment. A working thesis statement may switch during the writing process. You may use your research question and your working thesis to create a research proposal A brief document that includes a writer’s main research question, related subquestions, working thesis, and plan for gathering information. In a research proposal, you present your main research question, any related subquestions you plan to explore, and your working thesis.

    Step Two: Planning and Scheduling

    Before you commence researching your topic, take time to plan your researching and writing schedule. Research projects can take days, weeks, or even months to finish. Creating a schedule is a good way to ensure that you do not end up being perplexed by all the work you have to do as the deadline approaches.

    During this step of the process, it is also a good idea to plan the resources and organizational implements you will use to keep yourself on track across the project. Flowcharts, calendars, and checklists can all help you stick to your schedule. See Chapter 11 “Writing from Research: What Will I Learn?”. Section 11.Two “Steps in Developing a Research Proposal” for an example of a research schedule.

    Step Trio: Conducting Research

    When going about your research, you will likely use a diversity of sources—anything from books and periodicals to movie presentations and in-person interviews.

    Your sources will include both primary sources Research sources that provide raw information or data without commentary or interpretation, such as surveys, interviews, and historical documents. and secondary sources Research sources that provide information and include some analysis or interpretation of the information. Scholarly journals and magazine articles are usually considered secondary sources. Primary sources provide firsthand information or raw data. For example, surveys, in-person interviews, and historical documents are primary sources. Secondary sources, such as biographies, literary reviews, or magazine articles, include some analysis or interpretation of the information introduced. As you conduct research, you will take detailed, careful notes about your discoveries. You will also evaluate the reliability of each source you find.

    Step Four: Organizing Research and the Writer’s Ideas

    When your research is finish, you will organize your findings and determine which sources to cite in your paper. You will also have an chance to evaluate the evidence you have collected and determine whether it supports your thesis, or the concentrate of your paper. You may determine to adjust your thesis or conduct extra research to ensure that your thesis is well supported.


    Recall, your working thesis is not set in stone. You can and should switch your working thesis across the research writing process if the evidence you find does not support your original thesis. Never attempt to force evidence to fit your argument. For example, your working thesis is “Mars cannot support life-forms.” Yet, a week into researching your topic, you find an article in the Fresh York Times detailing fresh findings of bacteria under the Martian surface. Instead of attempting to argue that bacteria are not life forms, you might instead alter your thesis to “Mars cannot support elaborate life-forms.”

    Step Five: Drafting Your Paper

    Now you are ready to combine your research findings with your critical analysis of the results in a rough draft. You will incorporate source materials into your paper and discuss each source thoughtfully in relation to your thesis or purpose statement.

    When you cite your reference sources, it is significant to pay close attention to standard conventions for citing sources in order to avoid plagiarism The practice of using someone else’s words or ideas without acknowledging the source. or the practice of using someone else’s words without acknowledging the source. Later in this chapter, you will learn how to incorporate sources in your paper and avoid some of the most common pitfalls of attributing information.

    Step 6: Revising and Editing Your Paper

    In the final step of the research writing process, you will revise and grind your paper. You might reorganize your paper’s structure or revise for unity and cohesion, ensuring that each element in your paper flows into the next logically and naturally. You will also make sure that your paper uses an suitable and consistent tone.

    Once you feel certain in the strength of your writing, you will edit your paper for decent spelling, grammar, punctuation, mechanics, and formatting. When you accomplish this final step, you will have transformed a plain idea or question into a meticulously researched and well-written paper you can be proud of!

    Exercise Trio

    Review the steps of the research writing process. Then reaction the questions on your own sheet of paper.

  • In which steps of the research writing process are you permitted to switch your thesis?
  • In step Two, which types of information should you include in your project schedule?
  • What might happen if you eliminated step Four from the research writing process?
  • Key Takeaways

  • People undertake research projects via their academic and professional careers in order to response specific questions, share their findings with others, increase their understanding of challenging topics, and strengthen their researching, writing, and analytical abilities.
  • The research writing process generally comprises six steps: choosing a topic, scheduling and planning time for research and writing, conducting research, organizing research and ideas, drafting a paper, and revising and editing the paper.
  • This is “The Purpose of Research Writing”, section 11.1 from the book Successful Writing (v. 1.0). For details on it (including licensing), click here.

    This book is licensed under a Creative Commons by-nc-sa Three.0 license. See the license for more details, but that basically means you can share this book as long as you credit the author (but see below), don’t make money from it, and do make it available to everyone else under the same terms.

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