In abstract, you should give an overall view of the paper including the importance and necessity of the paper topic (the very first line of the abstract), the previous works and difficulties on this topic( 2nd and third lines), the big picture of your novelty in this paper (fourth and fifth lines), and verifying your results (the final part of the abstract).

For Introduction, you should provide an extended abstract here. Write a paragraph to explain the ingredients of the abstract as I explained. The significant fact in this part is to write everything with a valid reference for it. Also in the paragraph containing “the previous works and difficulties on this topic”, you should cautiously review and categorize the benchmark technologies in the topic of the paper and specify exactly the subtopic of your work. Also for your novelty and contribution, you should clearly state your treatment with benefits versus the earlier works.

Also, you don’t to refer works in the abstract (exception if your work is directly related to the earlier published works) but you should mention significant and benchmark works on the paper topic in the introduction section.

Friendly speaking, you should mention the latest works in your introduction and also some published ones in the target publication for submitting!

To see good examples, you can see most published works on very valued journals.

answered Aug 31 ’16 at 14:02


An abstract can be defined as a summary of the information in a document.

  • It should not exceed 250 words
  • It should be written in one paragraph.
  • It should be written in the past tense as it refers to work done.
  • Long words should be followed by its abbreviation which would be used through out the abstract and paper.
  • It should not cite any references (except in uncommon cases)
  • It should never give any information or conclusion that is not stated in the paper
  • Must be accurate with respect to figures quoted in the main text.


  • It should present the nature and scope of the problem investigated
  • Review the pertinent literature
  • State the method of investigation
  • State the principal results of the investigation
  • State the principal conclusion(s) suggested by the results
  • answered Jan Four at 12:11

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